# Content addressing and CIDs
For a deep dive into how Content Identifiers (CIDs) are constructed, take a look at ProtoSchool's tutorial on the Anatomy of a CID (opens new window).
# What is a CID?
A content identifier, or CID, is a label used to point to material in IPFS. It doesn't indicate where the content is stored, but it forms a kind of address based on the content itself. CIDs are short, regardless of the size of their underlying content.
CIDs are based on the content’s cryptographic hash. That means:
- Any difference in the content will produce a different CID and
- The same content added to two different IPFS nodes using the same settings will produce the same CID.
IPFS uses the
sha-256 hashing algorithm by default, but there is support for many other algorithms. The Multihash (opens new window) project represents the work for this, with the aim of future-proofing applications' use of hashes and allowing multiple hash functions to coexist. (If you're curious about how hash types in IPFS are decided upon, you may wish to keep an eye on this forum discussion (opens new window).)
# CID versions
CIDs can take a few different forms with different encoding bases or CID versions. Many of the existing IPFS tools still generate v0 CIDs, although the
files (Mutable File System) and
object operations now use CIDv1 by default.
# Version 0 (v0)
When IPFS was first designed, we used base 58-encoded multihashes as the content identifiers. This is simpler but much less flexible than newer CIDs. CIDv0 is still used by default for many IPFS operations, so you should generally support v0.
If a CID is 46 characters starting with "Qm", it's a CIDv0 (for more details, check the decoding algorithm (opens new window) in the CID specification).
# Version 1 (v1)
CID v1 contains some leading identifiers that clarify exactly which representation is used, along with the content-hash itself. These include:
- A multibase (opens new window) prefix, specifying the encoding used for the remainder of the CID
- A CID version identifier, which indicates which version of CID this is
- A multicodec (opens new window) identifier, indicating the format of the target content — it helps people and software to know how to interpret that content after the content is fetched
These leading identifiers also provide forward-compatibility, supporting different formats to be used in future versions of CID.
You can use the first few bytes of the CID to interpret the remainder of the content address and know how to decode the content after being fetched from IPFS. For more details, check out the CID specification (opens new window). It includes a decoding algorithm (opens new window) and links to existing software implementations for decoding CIDs.
If you can't decide between CIDv0 and CIDv1, consider choosing CIDv1 for your new project and opt in by passing a version flag (
ipfs add --cid-version 1). This is more future-proof and safe for use in browser contexts.
The IPFS project will switch to CIDv1 as the new default in the near future.
# CID Inspector
It's easy to explore a CID for yourself. Want to pull apart a specific CID's multibase, multicodec, or multihash info? You can use the CID Inspector (opens new window) or the CID Info panel in IPLD Explorer (opens new window) (both links launch using a sample CID) for an interactive breakdown of differently-formatted CIDs.
Check out ProtoSchool's Anatomy of a CID (opens new window) tutorial to see how a single file can be represented in multiple CID versions.
# CID conversion
Converting a CID from v0 to v1 enables it to be represented in multibase encodings.
The default for CIDv1 is the case-insensitive
base32, but use of the shorter
base36 is encouraged for IPNS names to ensure same text representation on subdomains.
# v0 to v1
ipfs cid format command can be used from the command line:
$ ipfs cid format -v 1 -b base32 QmbWqxBEKC3P8tqsKc98xmWNzrzDtRLMiMPL8wBuTGsMnR bafybeigdyrzt5sfp7udm7hu76uh7y26nf3efuylqabf3oclgtqy55fbzdi
toV1() method provided by the
cids (opens new window) library:
const CID = require('cids') new CID('QmbWqxBEKC3P8tqsKc98xmWNzrzDtRLMiMPL8wBuTGsMnR').toV1().toString('base32') // → bafybeigdyrzt5sfp7udm7hu76uh7y26nf3efuylqabf3oclgtqy55fbzdi
# Text to binary
A CID can be represented as both text and as a stream of bytes. The latter may be a better choice when speed and storage efficiency are considerations.
To convert a CIDv1 from text to binary form, simply read the first character
and then decode the remainder using the encoding specified in the multibase table (opens new window).
JS users can leverage the
cids (opens new window) library to get a binary version as
const CID = require('cids') new CID('bafybeigdyrzt5sfp7udm7hu76uh7y26nf3efuylqabf3oclgtqy55fbzdi').bytes // → Uint8Array [ 1, 112, 18, 32, 195, 196, 115, 62, ... ]
Be mindful about parsing CIDs correctly. Avoid shortcuts.
Unless you are the one who imported the data to IPFS, the length of a CID is not deterministic and depends on the length of the multihash inside of it.
To illustrate, passing a custom hash function will produce CIDs of varying lengths:
$ ipfs add --cid-version 1 --hash sha2-256 -nq cat.jpg | wc -c 60 $ ipfs add --cid-version 1 --hash blake2b-256 -nq cat.jpg | wc -c 63 $ ipfs add --cid-version 1 --hash sha3-512 -nq cat.jpg | wc -c 111
# CID to hex
Sometimes, a hexadecimal (opens new window) representation of raw bytes is prefered for debug purposes.
To get the hex for raw
.bytes of an entire CID, one can use built-in support for
base16 encoding and skip the
f (multibase prefix):
> cid.toString('base16') 'f01701220c3c4733ec8affd06cf9e9ff50ffc6bcd2ec85a6170004bb709669c31de94391a' > cid.toString('base16').substring(1) '01701220c3c4733ec8affd06cf9e9ff50ffc6bcd2ec85a6170004bb709669c31de94391a' // "cid as hex"
To convert back to a CIDv1, prepend the hex value with
f (multibase prefix (opens new window) for lowercase base16).
Use it as-is (it is a valid CID (opens new window)), or convert to a different multibase by passing it as an argument to
> new CID('f' +'01701220c3c4733ec8affd06cf9e9ff50ffc6bcd2ec85a6170004bb709669c31de94391a').toString('base32') // → bafybeigdyrzt5sfp7udm7hu76uh7y26nf3efuylqabf3oclgtqy55fbzdi
Subdomain gateways convert paths with custom bases like base16 to base32 or base36, in an effort to fit a CID in a DNS label:
# Further resources
Check out these links for more information on CIDs and how they work: